linux 下 安装 rpm 格式 的 mysql

在Linux操作系统下,安装MYSQL有两种方式:

  一种tar安装方式,

  另外一种是rpm安装方式。

  这两种安装方式有什么区别呢?尽管我们在Linux下常用tar来压缩/解压缩文件,但MYSQL的tar格式的文件其实只是mysql的文件包,并不能直接安装,需要操作configure、make、install等命令才能完成安装,是一种比较繁琐的安装方式。而rpm格式的文件是真正的安装包,相当于windows的exe文件,可以直接安装。

  

  本文以MySQL-5.6.21 64位版本rpm格式的安装方式为例,详述MySQL的安装方式,32位的rpm版本安装方式也是如此。

(一)删除老版本的MySQL

  在安装前要先确定系统是否已经安装了其他版本的MySQL,如已安装其他版本的MySQL,需先删除后再安装新版本。经本文亲测,采用如下方式删除老版本的MySQL或MySQL残留文件作为方便。

  1. 执行yum命令,删除MySQL的lib库,服务文件

yum remove mysql mysql-server mysql-libs mysql-server;

  2. 执行find命令,查找MySQL的残留文件,然后运行“rm -rf 文件名”删除残留的MySQL文件

find / -name mysql

(二)RPM格式安装MySQL

  当前,MySQL的最新版本为:5.6.21,从官网下载MySQL的rpm安装包,解压后有如下六个文件:

  1. MySQL-client-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm #MySQL客户端程序
  2. MySQL-devel-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm #MySQL的库和头文件
  3. MySQL-embedded-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm #MySQL的嵌入式程序
  4. MySQL-server-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm #MySQL服务端程序
  5. MySQL-shared-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm #MySQL的共享库
  6. MySQL-test-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm #MySQL的测试组件

  一般对于开发而言,我们只需要下面三个文件就可以。

  1. MySQL-devel-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm #MySQL的库和头文件
  2. MySQL-server-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm #MySQL服务端程序
  3. MySQL-devel-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm #MySQL的库和头文件

1. 在重新进行安装之前,为确保万无一失,我们还是再确认一下系统中是否有MySQL极其相关的RPM安装包。如果有,则先删除。

rpm -qa | grep -i mysql

执行完上述命令后,返回空数据,则可进行第二步。否则,执行下面的命令删除MySQL的相关包文件。

yum -y remove mysql-libs*

2. 将前面提到的三个MySQL安装文件,拷贝到服务器,然后执行下述安装命令

rpm -ivh MySQL-server-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh MySQL-devel-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh MySQL-client-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm

debug 如下:

[root@VM_32_234_centos tools]# rpm -ivh MySQL-server-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:MySQL-server           rpm -ivh MySQL-devel-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh MySQL-client-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm#################       ########################################### [100%]
2014-09-29 15:01:50 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2014-09-29 15:01:50 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pages
2014-09-29 15:01:50 30994 [Note] InnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabled
2014-09-29 15:01:50 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtins
2014-09-29 15:01:50 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Memory barrier is not used
2014-09-29 15:01:50 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3
2014-09-29 15:01:50 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Using Linux native AIO
2014-09-29 15:01:50 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Using CPU crc32 instructions
2014-09-29 15:01:50 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 128.0M
2014-09-29 15:01:50 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer pool
2014-09-29 15:01:50 30994 [Note] InnoDB: The first specified data file ./ibdata1 did not exist: a new database to be created!
2014-09-29 15:01:50 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Setting file ./ibdata1 size to 12 MB
2014-09-29 15:01:50 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
2014-09-29 15:01:51 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Setting log file ./ib_logfile101 size to 48 MB
2014-09-29 15:01:52 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Setting log file ./ib_logfile1 size to 48 MB
2014-09-29 15:01:52 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Renaming log file ./ib_logfile101 to ./ib_logfile0
2014-09-29 15:01:52 30994 [Warning] InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=45781
2014-09-29 15:01:52 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
2014-09-29 15:01:52 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
2014-09-29 15:01:52 30994 [Note] InnoDB: 128 rollback segment(s) are active.
2014-09-29 15:01:52 30994 [Warning] InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables.
2014-09-29 15:01:52 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Foreign key constraint system tables created
2014-09-29 15:01:52 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Creating tablespace and datafile system tables.
2014-09-29 15:01:52 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Tablespace and datafile system tables created.
2014-09-29 15:01:52 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Waiting for purge to start
2014-09-29 15:01:52 30994 [Note] InnoDB: 5.6.21 started; log sequence number 0
A random root password has been set. You will find it in '/root/.mysql_secret'.
2014-09-29 15:01:53 30994 [Note] Binlog end
2014-09-29 15:01:53 30994 [Note] InnoDB: FTS optimize thread exiting.
2014-09-29 15:01:53 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Starting shutdown...
2014-09-29 15:01:54 30994 [Note] InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 1625977


2014-09-29 15:01:54 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pages
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabled
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtins
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: Memory barrier is not used
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: Using Linux native AIO
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: Using CPU crc32 instructions
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 128.0M
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer pool
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: Highest supported file format is Barracuda.
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: 128 rollback segment(s) are active.
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: Waiting for purge to start
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: 5.6.21 started; log sequence number 1625977
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] Binlog end
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: FTS optimize thread exiting.
2014-09-29 15:01:54 31016 [Note] InnoDB: Starting shutdown...
2014-09-29 15:01:56 31016 [Note] InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 1625987




A RANDOM PASSWORD HAS BEEN SET FOR THE MySQL root USER !
You will find that password in '/root/.mysql_secret'.

You must change that password on your first connect,
no other statement but 'SET PASSWORD' will be accepted.
See the manual for the semantics of the 'password expired' flag.

Also, the account for the anonymous user has been removed.

In addition, you can run:

  /usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation

which will also give you the option of removing the test database.
This is strongly recommended for production servers.

See the manual for more instructions.

Please report any problems at http://bugs.mysql.com/

The latest information about MySQL is available on the web at

  http://www.mysql.com

Support MySQL by buying support/licenses at http://shop.mysql.com

New default config file was created as /usr/my.cnf and
will be used by default by the server when you start it.
You may edit this file to change server settings

[root@VM_32_234_centos tools]# rpm -ivh MySQL-devel-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:MySQL-devel            ########################################### [100%]
[root@VM_32_234_centos tools]# rpm -ivh MySQL-client-5.6.21-1.linux_glibc2.5.x86_64.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:MySQL-client           ########################################### [100%]
[root@VM_32_234_centos tools]# 

  上述三个命令在执行时,只有第一个命令执行的时间稍微长些,后面两个命令运行速度很快。

3.执行下述命令,将MySQL的配置文件拷贝到/etc目录下。

cp /usr/share/mysql/my-default.cnf /etc/my.cnf

4.分别运行下述命令,初始化MySQL及设置密码。

/usr/bin/mysql_install_db    #初始化MySQL 
service mysql start        #启动MySQL 
cat /root/.mysql_secret        #查看root账号的初始密码,会出现下述所示信息

如:

[root@VM_32_234_centos storage]# service mysql start
Starting MySQL. SUCCESS! 
[root@VM_32_234_centos storage]# cat /root/.mysql_secret
# The random password set for the root user at Mon Sep 29 15:01:52 2014 (local time): PENFgcgkI8UnIKaE

[root@VM_32_234_centos storage]# mysql -u root -pPENFgcgkI8UnIKaE
Warning: Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.6.21

Copyright (c) 2000, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> 

   — set password=password(‘123456’); #更改MySQL密码,

mysql> set password=password('123456');
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

5.设置开机启动

chkconfig mysql on
[root@VM_32_234_centos storage]# chkconfig mysql on 
[root@VM_32_234_centos storage]# chkconfig --list | grep mysql
mysql           0:off   1:off   2:on    3:on    4:on    5:on    6:off

上面打印出来的内容中,2~5为on就是开机启动了。

6.修改/etc/my.cnf

  设置MySQL的字符集,配置MySQL表明不区分大小写(默认情况下,MySQL对表名区分大小写,列名不区分大小写)。在[mysqld]下面加入如下内容:

character_set_server=utf8 character_set_client=utf8 collation-server=utf8_general_ci lower_case_table_names=1 max_connections=1000

7.MySQL的默认文件路径

  1. /var/lib/mysql/ #数据库目录
  2. /usr/share/mysql #配置文件目录
  3. /usr/bin #相关命令目录 #启动脚本

8.修改数据文件路径

  1.修改 /etc/my.cnf 文件

  vi /etc/my.cnf

# For advice on how to change settings please see
# http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/server-configuration-defaults.html
# *** DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE. It's a template which will be copied to the
# *** default location during install, and will be replaced if you
# *** upgrade to a newer version of MySQL.

[mysqld]

# Remove leading # and set to the amount of RAM for the most important data
# cache in MySQL. Start at 70% of total RAM for dedicated server, else 10%.
# innodb_buffer_pool_size = 128M

# Remove leading # to turn on a very important data integrity option: logging
# changes to the binary log between backups.
# log_bin

# These are commonly set, remove the # and set as required.
#basedir = /storage/server/mysql-5.6.21-1/
datadir = /storage/server/mysql-5.6.21-1/data
port = 3306
server_id = 2
socket = /storage/server/mysql-5.6.21-1/data/mysql.sock
pid-file =/storage/server/mysql-5.6.21-1/data/VM_32_234_centos.pid

# Remove leading # to set options mainly useful for reporting servers.
# The server defaults are faster for transactions and fast SELECTs.
# Adjust sizes as needed, experiment to find the optimal values.
# join_buffer_size = 128M
# sort_buffer_size = 2M
# read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M

sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES

复制文件 /var/lib/mysql/ 到 /storage/server/mysql-5.6.21-1/data/

cp -R /var/lib/mysql/* /storage/server/mysql-5.6.21-1/data/

9.重启MySQL

# service mysql restart 
Shutting down MySQL.. SUCCESS! 
Starting MySQL. SUCCESS!
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